How do PHP sessions work?
Here’s how the web works: your browser sends a request to a server, gets a response and that’s it. The server has the most extreme case of Alzheimer you have ever seen. The next time you send a request, it is not going to know who you are and what you did literally seconds ago. Just logged in? Who are you again?
Every HTTP request is treated as completely separate, and as strange as that may sound, that is a good thing. It enables HTTP to be scaled over dozens, or even thousands of servers. After all, your browser doesn’t have to know which Google server it just talked to, right? Why would it need to?
However, there’s a problem. Even something as simple as a login system requires the server to know who you are. It needs to have state that is associated with you, the user.
That’s what sessions are for. Let’s take a look how these work:
Now, the cookie in this context is not a fancy Christmas treat, but a tiny piece of information stored in the browser. Once set, the browser sends this tiny piece of information to the server that originally set it.
As you may notice, this gives us an excellent vehicle to identify the user. Now, we don’t just trust the data in the cookie, we have to verify it against the database. No funny business here.
The problem with (PHP) sessions
Now, this sounds quite sensible, right? Let’s take a look at how PHP does sessions in a bit more detail. At their simplest, PHP sessions can be used like this:
<?php session_start(); $_SESSION['thing'] = 'see you next request';
<?php session_start(); //Outputs 'see you next request' //if called after the first script echo($_SESSION['thing']);
What you basically have is a giant bag. This bag will travel with the user as long as they come to the site within the lifetime of the session. Normally, as a sane developer you would do this:
<?php //after login $_SESSION['currentuser'] = $user;
This would enable you to retrieve the current user on any page you are on. Convenient, right? Ok, cool, we have this wonderful tool, let’s put more stuff in it. How about information what the user viewed last? And maybe their language choice? Oh, damn, caching is too hard, let’s put the translations in there…
Yeah. That’s usually how sessions end up looking in PHP application. Everyone abuses it to store everything under the sun because it is terribly convenient. But that’s not the worst, not by a long shot.
OK, so now you have developed your wonderful web application, with Angular, React and what not. It works perfectly on your developer machine, it is time to deploy. To deploy, your sysadmin installs a cluster, you switch the sessions to be stored in MongoDB (because you want to be with the cool kids on the block), and traffic starts to pour in.
Suddenly you notice something strange. Things start to break, and you have no idea why. When trying to reproduce the error on your dev machine, you can’t. On the production system it clearly breaks… what happened?
Let’s roll back to your dev machine. Here’s what happens for a single request:
That’s all good, but what happens when your frontend developer fires two requests in quick succession? Let’s take a look:
OK, this might have been a bit long, but the point is that PHP 1 locks the session file so the second process (PHP 2) has to wait for PHP 1 to finish processing the request and writing back the session data to the session file.
Now here’s the interesting part, let’s look at what happens in a cluster with a MongoDB session storage:
The thing is, while the file session backend locks the session, all other backends don’t. This means that when two parallel requests happen, they can and will overwrite each others changes to the session data.
This isn’t huge problem as long as you only store the current users ID in the session, but again, the session tends to
organically grow, and that’s putting it mildly. The more changes you make to a session, the greater the risk becomes
that there will be a race condition. And double requests do happen, even if you don’t do AJAX. Think of double
clicks on submit buttons, or even your non-existent
favicon.ico request could land on your PHP script.
Hacks and workarounds
OK, granted, there are some workarounds. You can use
SELECT... FOR UPDATE in MySQL to lock a session (if you don’t
plan to scale) or you could use so-called spinlocks with timeouts. You could
even put a network filesystem under your sessions if you like getting up at 2 AM to an outage. But let’s face it, these
are hacks more than anything. In a world where you have a fully blown application running in the browser, allowing one
request in parallel just isn’t cool any more.
Lower the granularity of locks
The biggest problem with PHP’s session handling is that it gives you a false sense of security. It pretends that locks are a part of the session as a contract in the dev environment, but they really aren’t. And sessions without locks are just an accident waiting to happen, especially the way PHP does them where it is incredibly easy to just store any crap in them.
Later on, when you discover that sessions are biting you in the behind, there is no easy way to get rid of them. Your application code probably just knows about one giant session object where it can store stuff in, it doesn’t know how to handle a segmented data storage that you could lock separately. Nah, you need to rewrite your whole application. Ok, maybe not the whole, but a significant chunk of it.
So, in order to avoid this disaster, you need to lower the lock granularity. This means that you need to lock only what you need. How do you do that? Well, you have a database, right? So if you want to store credentials, you can give them a table. Say, create one table like this:
CREATE TABLE access ( id VARCHAR(255) PRIMARY KEY, user_id BIGINT NOT NULL, expires DATETIME, INDEX i_user_id(user_id), CONSTRAINT fk_access_user_id FOREIGN KEY (user_id) REFERENCES user(id) ON UPDATE CASCADE ON DELETE CASCADE );
Now, what you do is you send the user the access ID in a cookie and whenever a user comes back, you can just look it up. Do you need locks on this? Nope, not really, since you only create it once, then update the expiry time and finally delete it when needed. Totally safe.
Next up, shopping cart. This one is interesting, because if the user clicks around like crazy, strange things can happen. So to avoid confusion, you can use transactions for your updates, and then always send back the current state of the shopping cart:
START TRANSACTION; DELETE FROM cart_items WHERE card_id=? AND card_item_id=?; SELECT * FROM cart_items WHERE cart_id=? COMMIT;
See? Again, no locks needed, just make sure the user always sees the latest state and doesn’t get a mismatching update.
And so on, so forth. Yes, I’m vastly oversimplifying things, but you don’t need a session to store all your user state. Besides, dropping the session as a state storage also has some neat advantages, like being able to share your cart between the desktop and mobile device, etc.
If you really don’t want to access the database all the time, well, you can still store a lot of stuff in cookies and local storage. Just be sure to keep the security aspect in mind.
And if you really need locks, make them as granular as possible and make them explicit in your business logic. However, it is best to avoid them if possible. You can do that by organizing your data structure in a way that makes them unnecessary, as shown in the examples above.
It’s not just PHP
Having one giant blob of data for a user on the server side is by no means just a PHP problem. However, PHP makes it particularly easy to shoot yourself in the foot. Sessions as a means of storing state are a liability in the era of client side applications. They may work for small webshops, but they are more trouble than they are worth, and I found that dropping the concept of sessions made my code a lot cleaner.
Can you build highly scalable sessions with distributed locking? Sure, but I hope your sysadmin likes running a Zookeeper cluster for you.
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